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Ahinahina - Silversword - Argyroxiphium Sandwicense - Summit Haleakala Maui Hawaii
Photograph - Photography - Fine Art
ʻĀhinahina - Silversword - Argyroxiphium sandwicense - Summit Haleakalā Maui Hawaii
Haleakalā (/ˌhɑːliːˌɑːkəˈlɑː/; Hawaiian: [ˈhɐleˈjɐkəˈlaː]), or the East Maui Volcano, is a massive shield volcano that forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. The western 25% of the island is formed by the West Maui Mountains. The tallest peak of Haleakalā, at 10,023 feet (3,055 m), (where I am standing here) is Puʻu ʻUlaʻula (Red Hill). From the summit one looks down into a massive depression some 11.25 km (7 mi) across, 3.2 km (2 mi) wide, and nearly 800 m (2,600 ft) deep. The surrounding walls are steep and the interior mostly barren-looking with a scattering of volcanic cones.
Flora and Fauna that exist nowhere else in the world - To see the ʻĀhinahina - Hawaiian Silversword in bloom is truly special . .
This image was photographed this morning on the summit of Haleakalā 06 August 2013 08/06/2013 – 05:53:32 AM HST
Haleakalā - Hale-a-ka-la literally translates from Hawaiian to English as House of the Sun.
The following text are quote exceprts - resources provided below - along with a few of my own notes . .
"Geologically speaking the Haleakalā summit area is actually not a typical crater formed by volcanic activity such as you would see on the Big Island of Hawaii.
Haleakalā Crater is so gigantic because it was formed over eons as the result of erosion of the entire volcanic mountain top.
Over this period of time, smaller lava flows back-filled the eroding valley, building up the floor of what is commonly called the Haleakalā Crater.
The cinder cones that dot the landscape here are the last of these most recent eruptions and these individually have true volcanic craters, which is called Haleakalā National Park Summit Area.
Haleakalā is dormant, and (geologically speaking) it has erupted fairly recently. Most guidebooks quote the approximate date of 1790 as the year of the last eruption but that date in fact is largely based upon deductions made from a notoriously bad map maker’s map not matching the coastal lines on an accurate map. Haleakalā is expected to erupt several more times in the future. [Living here on Maui you may imagine knowing this can have a tremendous impact on our peace of mind when we really consider what this means for those of us living on the island].
Another interesting note is that the reduced pressure at the high altitude of Haleakalā is well below that of a pressurized aircraft. So be sure to observe the same degassing time rules you would prior to flying. Sunrise is always special. Mark Twain called it “the sublimest spectacle I ever witnessed.” Since there is less atmosphere up here, combined with being above turbulent atmospheric conditions, and virtually zero light pollution, the summit area of Haleakalā also ranks among the very best sites in the world for viewing the night sky. Astronomers can expect to see objects up to 7th magnitude. Magnitude is a measurement of brightness. The higher the number, the dimmer the object.
Haleakalā National Park has more endangered species than any other National Park in the United States. One of the plants which is native to only Haleakalā is the ʻĀhinahina, or Haleakalā Silversword.
Living only at the summit of Haleakalā , the Silversword has developed some interesting adaptations for survival. One of the lesser-known adaptations is that the leaves of the Silversword form at an angle so that the older leaves focus the warming energy of the sun on to the youngest leaves. The silvery hairs, fleshy leaves, and low-growing rosette form of the Haleakalā silversword - Argyroxiphium sandwicense subsp. macrocephalum - allow it to survive in hot, dry climates like the aeolian desert cinder slopes of the crater.
Silverswords live between 3 and 90 years or more. They flower once, sending up a spectacular flowering stalk, and then die soon afterward, scattering drying seeds to the wind.
And if you will notice the Hawaiian spelling is actually a part of the URL address http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haleakalā
Whenever you see a line above/over a vowel that means you should double that . the emphasis is on the last letter ā which is elongated in the pronunciation.
On first hear, English speakers commonly perceive Hawaiian as sounding somewhat 'repetitious', probably due to its remarkably concise inventory of sounds
Written Hawaiian constitutes merely ½ of English's 26 letter alphabet, and spoken Hawaiian contains roughly ¼ of English's 40+ sounds.
For this reason Hawaiian is fairly easy to pronounce, especially since all of its sounds exist in English.
Devoid of 'hiss-like2' (S/SH/CH) and guttural sounds, as well as consonant clusters, English speakers have also been known to characterize Hawaiian as sounding very 'clean' and 'fluid'.
Another popular description is melodious, which could be attributed to the fact that vowels are more bountiful than consonants.
Hawaiian is written with the Latin alphabet.
Letters of English Alphabet Used to Write Hawaiian
a e h i k l m n o p u w
Hawaiian also has longer versions of all five vowels. Whenever you see a line above a vowel that means you should double that vowel's spoken duration.
So, while u is pronounced as "oo," ū should be pronounced as "ooo." In English this line is known as a macron, but in Hawaiian it is called the kahakō.
Although vowel length is trivial in English, it makes a very big difference in Hawaiian; ignoring the kahakō will lead to some catastrophic miscommunications.
Hawaiian has only eight consonants. L, M and N sound more or less as they do in English, however, H, K, N, P, and W. differ slightly.
There is also an additional consonant represented by a single back facing or reversed apostrophe.
In Hawaiian, this sound is called the ‘okina (break) because it represents a short pause in the start or middle of a word.
It has also been called the ‘u‘ina (snap).
In English it is called the glottal stop because it is articulated by constricting one's glottis.
It is found in exclamations like 'uh-oh' and 'uh-huh'; the dash in the middle is where the glottal stop occurs.
It can also be heard in the midst of the words 'button' and 'kitten' - notice how neither of these words actually contain a T sound. IPA: /ʔ/.
i‘a (marine animal) "ee - ah"
When most people learn how to read English they are taught phonics, which are little conventions that help them navigate spelling irregularities. For instance, phonics would dictate that the letter I is pronounced consistently as "ih" before N, in words like 'shin', 'fin', and 'pin', and as "ai" after NE, in words like 'shine', 'fine' and 'pine'.
Phonics are only necessary because English spelling is so warped. Take a look at the letter P or the sequence GH. P can be silent (as in 'psychology'), but it can also sound like F before H (as in 'philanthropy'). The sequence GH can also be silent (as in 'thought'), or it can sound like an F (as in 'laugh'), or it can even sound like a G (as in 'ghost'). In fact, you'd be hard pressed to find a single letter that doesn't have an alternate pronunciation.
The main reason why English spelling is so disorganized is because while the pronunciation of words changed over hundreds of years, the way they're spelled has remained standard. However, since Hawaiian has only been written down for a couple centuries, its spelling has remained for the most part straightforward. Thus, whereas an English letter such as A can sound like "ah" as in 'tall', "ae" as in 'tack' or "ay" as in 'take' depending on what word it's found in, the Hawaiian a will always sound like "ah" no matter what the word is.
Therefore, it is important never to apply English phonics to Hawaiian words. This might prove difficult since for the average adult, knowledge of phonics has become largely subconscious. However, try to make sure you never do any of the following:
• change the sound of any letters
• add any letters
• ignore any letters
To learn more visit the following information resources:
Official National Park Service web site: www.nps.gov
Hawaiian Lesson: http://www.hawaiian.saivus.org/hawaiianlesson01.html
Institute for Astronomy University of Hawaii: http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/haleakalanew
And . . if you are on Maui and would like to know the current time for sunrise and sunset along with moonrise - temperature - visibility and current weather conditions on Haleakalā visit: http://www.ifa.hawaii.edu/haleakalanew/weather.shtml
The ‘okina cannot be capitalized. If a word beginning with an ‘okina begins a sentence or proper name, the vowel after it is capitalized instead.
So now you see the significance of the spelling as well as the correct pronunciation and emphasis on the first letter ʻĀ of ʻĀhinahina and understand the correct pronunciation and emphasis for the last letter ā in Haleakalā . .
And this concludes your Hawaiian language lesson for the day :))
ʻĀhinahina - Silversword - Argyroxiphium sandwicense - Summit Haleakalā Maui Hawaii
Copyright © 2013 Sharon Mau - All Rights Reserved
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August 7th, 2013
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