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Adult male in Oregon
Adult female in Wyoming
Least Concern (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification e
Species: A. americana
A. a. americana
A. a. mexicana
A. a. oregona
A. a. peninsularis
A. a. sonoriensis
The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl mammal endemic to interior western and central North America. Though not an antelope, it is often known colloquially in North America as the prong buck, pronghorn antelope, or simply antelope, as it closely resembles the true antelopes of the Old World and fills a similar ecological niche due to convergent evolution. It is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae. During the Pleistocene period, 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America. About five existed when humans entered North America and all but A. americana are now extinct.
2 Range and ecology
3 Social behavior and reproduction
4 Population and conservation
6 External links
Adult males are 1.31.5 m (4 ft 3 in4 ft 10 in) long from nose to tail, stand 81104 cm (3241 in) high at the shoulder, and weigh 4065 kg (88140 lb). The females are the same height as males but weigh 3448 kg (75110 lb). The feet have just two hooves, with no dewclaws. The body temperature is 38 °C (100 °F).
Closeup of head
Each "horn" of the pronghorn is composed of a slender, laterally flattened blade of bone that grows from the frontal bones of the skull, forming a permanent core. As in the Giraffidae, skin covers the bony cores, but in the pronghorn it develops into a keratinous sheath which is shed and regrown on an annual basis. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the horn sheaths of the pronghorn are branched, each sheath possessing a forward-pointing tine (hence the name pronghorn). The horns of males are well developed.
The orbits (eye sockets) are prominent and sit high on the skull; there is never an antorbital pit. The teeth are hypsodont, and the dental formula is:
May 29th, 2013
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