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The first settlement was founded during the Early Bronze Age about 5000 years ago on the Acropolis. In the Hellenistic Period between the 3rd - 1st century BC, Metropolis, which meant the city of the Mother Goddess, was fortified with impressive walls. It was in this period that monumental public buildings such as the Theatre, Stoa and Bouleteurion were erected mostly with generous funds granted by the citizens.
During the Roman period the city covered and extensive area. The city's income did not solely depend on farming and agriculture. Being on the main road between Smyrna and Ephesus, trade developed rapidly and became one of the main income points. A Roman bath and gymnasium complex had also been unearthed on the lower northern slopes.
During the late byzantine period, the city decreased in size. A new fortress was built between the Acropolis and Stoa around the 14th century AD.
Soon after the Turkish conquest in the 15th century, the city was abandoned. Over time, the inhabitants moved to Torbali.
January 5th, 2013
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