Arabic science timeline. The 'Golden Age of Arabic Science' occurred in the period from the 8th century to the 12th century. From Iran and Syria to North Africa and Spain, many philosophers and scientists made notable contributions to physics, mathematics, astronomy, medicine and geography. Eleven are shown here, with brief descriptions, birth and death years, lifespans, full Arabic names, and (where applicable) Latinised Western names. In chronological order they are Algorizm, Alkindus, Rhazes, Albucasis, Alhazen, al-Biruni, Avicenna, al-Khayyam, Avenzoar, al-Idrisi, and Averroes.