The word oliphaunt is a variant spelling of the archaic word oliphant meaning "elephant", "ivory", "elephant-tusk", "musical horn made of an elephant tusk", or "a musical instrument resembling such a horn". The most famous use of the term in literature outside Tolkien is in The Song of Roland: the knight Roland fails to call for help at the Battle of Roncevaux using his oliphant horn until it is too late for him and his comrades. Roland's horn is echoed in The Lord of the Rings by Boromir's horn and counterposed by Helm's horn and the horns of Buckland.
Employed as a beast of burden by the natives of Harad, the Haradrim, the oliphants or m�l were also used in battle during the wars of the Third Age. In the War of the Ring, they...
Curtiss Shaffer graduated from the Art Institute of Pittsburgh in 1991 with an Associates Degree in Graphic Design. He attended the Army School of Engineers at Fort Leonardwood Missouri in 1992 and graduated from Indiana University of Pennsylvania in 1996 with a Bachelors Degree in Art Education. He served as an engineer in the United States Army Active and Reserve components from 1991 to 2001, and therein attended graduate studies at Clarion University of Pennsylvania, Gannon University and the College of New Jersey. Besides working in his field, Curtiss has been teaching art full-time for fourteen years, at all levels of public education, and was named to the Who's Who of American Teachers in 2004 and again in 2006.
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