"A la campagne"-original art by viktor lazarev
'''Crimson ''' is a strong, bright, deep red color. It originally meant the [[color]] of the [[Kermes (dye)|Kermes dye]] produced from a [[scale insect]], ''[[Kermes vermilio]]'', but the name is now also used as a generic term for slightly reddish-blue colors that are between red and [[rose (color)|rose]]; besides crimson itself, these colors include [[Carmine (color)|carmine]], [[Raspberry (color)|raspberry]], [[ruddy]], [[Ruby (color)|ruby]], [[Amaranth (color)|amaranth]], [[Cardinal (color)|cardinal]], and [[Cerise (color)|cerise]].
== History ==
'''Crimson''' (NR4) is produced using the dried bodies of the [[Kermes (genus)|kermes]] insect, which were gathered commercially in Mediterranean countries, where they live on the [[Kermes oak]], and sold throughout Europe.[http://www.naturenet.net/blogs/2009/01/the-prickly-question-of-oak-leaves/ Naturenet article with images and description of ''Kermes vermilio'' and its foodplant] Kermes dyes have been found in burial wrappings in Anglo-Scandinavian [[York]]. They fell out of use with the introduction of [[cochineal]], because although the dyes were comparable in quality and color intensity it needed ten to twelve times as much kermes to produce the same effect as cochineal.
'''[[Carmine]]''' is the name given to the dye made from the dried bodies of the female [[cochineal]], although the name '''crimson''' is sometimes applied to these dyes too. Cochineal appears to have been brought to Europe during the conquest of [[Mexico]] by the Spaniard [[Hern�Cort�], and the name 'carmine' is derived from the French ''carmin''. It was first described by [[Mathioli]] in 1549. The pigment is also called ''[[cochineal]]'' after the insect from which it is made.
'''[[Alizarin]]''' (PR83) is a pigment that was first synthesized in 1868 by the German [[chemist]]s [[Carl Gr�]] and [[Carl Liebermann]] and replaced the natural pigment [[madder lake]]. Alizarin crimson is a dye bonded onto [[alum]] which is then used as a pigment and mixed with [[ochre]], [[sienna]] and [[umber]]. It is not totally colorfast.
== Etymology ==
The word ''crimson'' has been recorded in English since 1400,The first recorded use of ''crimson'' as a color name in English was in 1400 according to the following book: Maerz and Paul ''A Dictionary of Color'' New York:1930--McGraw Hill Page 193; Color Sample of Crimson: Page 31 Plate 4 Color Sample K6 and its earlier forms include ''cremesin'', ''crymysyn'' and ''cramoysin'' (cf. [[cramoisy]], a crimson cloth). These were adapted via [[Old Spanish]] from the [[Medieval Latin]] ''cremesinus'' (also ''kermesinus'' or ''carmesinus''), the dye produced from [[Kermes (genus)|Kermes]] scale insects, and can be traced back to Arabic ''qermez'' ("red"), also borrowed in [[Turkish language|Turkish]] ''kırmızı'' and many other languages, e.g. German ''Karmesin'', Italian ''Cremisi'', French ''cramoisi'', etc. (via Latin). The ultimate source may be Sanskrit कृमिज ''kṛmi-jā'' meaning "worm-made"."American Heritage Dictionary", s.v. ''Kermes''; also [[Friedrich Kluge|Kluge]], "Etymologisches W�rbuch der deutschen Sprache", s.v. ''Karmesin'', et al.
A shortened form of ''carmesinus'' also gave the Latin ''carminus'', from which comes [[carmine]].
Other cognates include the [[Old Church Slavic]] ''čruminu'' and the [[Russian language|Russian]] ''čermnyj'' "red". Cf. also [[vermilion]].
== Dyes ==
June 11th, 2013
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