Ladoga Lake, Northern Russia.First of all the Ladoga Lake is a freshwater lake located at the Republic of Karelia, northwestern Russia, not so far away from Saint - Petersburg. And its the largest lake in Europe and 14th largest lake by area in the world.The lake's area is 17,891 km� (excluding the islands). Its length (north to south) is 219 km, average width is 83 km, average depth is 51 m, maximum depth is about 230 m (in the north-western part).In the Middle Ages, the lake formed a vital part of the Trade Route from the Varangians to the Greeks, with the Norse emporium at Staraya Ladoga defending the mouth of the Volkhov since the 8th century. In the course of the Swedish-Novgorodian Wars, the area was disputed between the Novgorod Republic and Sweden. In the early 14th century, the fortresses of Korela (Kexholm) and Oreshek (Neteborg) were established along the banks of the lake.