The IUCN Red List indicates that the entire species E. zebra is vulnerable (1994). The IUCN, and U.S. federal list both indicate E. z. zebra as endangered. It is also listed as endangered by CITES and is placed on Appendix I. Equus zebra hartmannae is listed as threatened by the IUCN, U.S. federal list, and is listed on Appendix II by CITES.
The major threats to E. zebra include habitat loss and degradation, invasive alien species, harvesting, persecution, and intrinsic factors such as a restricted range. Mountain Zebra National Park and other reserves were established for the protection of E. Z. zebra. As of 1995, they were estimated at over 700 individuals. During the 1950s, numbers of E. z. hartmannae were estimated at 50,000 to 75,000 individuals. In 1992 they were estimated at only about 8,000 (Nowak, 1999; Penzhorn, 1988) (animaldiversity.org).